Seminar Topics-How to select a good one?

For engineering students, for whom this website is meant for, seminar season starts by the end of sixth semester. By the end of the fifth semester you will be asked to find a good seminar topic for the coming semester. I was an engineering student so I know that most students take this silly. But only once you get out of your college with you engineering degree you realize the importance of the seminar topic you selected. Most interviewers ask about your project and seminars. If you had presented an interesting seminar topic there is a good chance that you get selected. So I request all my visitors not to take your seminar presentation lightly. Give it the importance it deserves.

In most cases your professors will give you a couple of seminar topics to select from. Make sure that you add topics of your choice as well. Make sure that you choose a topic that you are seriously interested in. Always give more attention to new evolving technologies and learn about their scope. This will not only give you an interesting topic to present but also may help you to find a good career.

While preparing slides for your presentation DO NOT add heavy graphics. Light borders look good but avoid heavy color tones. Do not write lengthy sentences so you can just read them to your audience. Instead include only points and explain them to your listeners. For a great presentation you should be able to teach them your seminar topic.

While presenting make sure that you really understand the seminar topic you selected. Only then you will be able to present it well, otherwise you will be stuttering all along the presentation also boring your audience.

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We can expect Brain like computers soon in reality

The computers that are used in high-tech research labs and military applications are in the high end zone. But, the technology is still limited to the extent that they could not reduce the size of such computers with the increasing speed. These computers may be able to perform multiple operations and carry out several instructions at the same time, but they are not portable. Besides, no one has ever been able to develop a computer that resembles the biological systems of a brain.

Lately, a device that is more energy efficient than any other processor used now, and that too with the capability of processing multiple instructions at the same time, has been developed. The details and study was explained in the latest edition of the journal called “Advanced Materials”. The article explains about a device that uses phase changed materials for the multiple and simultaneous processing and storage of information. All the team work and effort for this device was given by researchers at the University of Exeter.

All conventional computers present now have a separate processor and memory. Thus, when a data is to be processed, it has to be identified from its memory, selected, taken to the processor, processed and then sent back to the same memory address. Since multiple data processing happens in a very small time, a huge time loss occurs. When the same processing mechanism occurs inside a human brain, the whole case becomes different. The brain is equipped to process and store the information and the same place. Thus, the time required to search for the information, retrieve it, and send it back after processing is saved. In order to design a device with the same characteristics, the researchers used a material that would resemble the properties explained above called phase changed materials.

Phase change materials are able to process and store the information at the same place and also at the same time. The material was first experimented with basic processing methods like addition, subtraction and so on. To their surprise, they found out that the material was able to reproduce artificial neurons and synapses. Thus, an artificial system that is made only from phase-change devices could potentially learn and process information in a similar way to our own brains.

The figure shown below represents a graphic prototype of a biologically similar, extremely efficient, fast ‘brain-like’ computing system.

Professor David Wright, a professor at the University of Exeter, who leaded the research process, said that their invention has major implications for the development of extreme forms of computing, including ‘brain-like’ computers. They have also tried to develop a new form of ‘brain-like’ computer system that can be used to learn, adapt and change over time. Such an invention will have a huge scope in the market as the size of such devices will be a way smaller than the conventional computers with similar speeds.

The study of this technology, being in its initial stage, the whole focus was given on a single phase change cell. Since the results were way better than they expected, they have started expanding their research on the building systems of interconnected cells. They are trying to experiment with small processes like identifying an object among many, and so on.

The project and its funding was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

To know more about this seminar – visit this website on Electronics projects

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Ovonic Unified Memory

This  Electronics Engineering Seminar Topic deals with the following:

We are now living in a world driven by various electronic equipments. Semiconductors form the fundamental building blocks of the modern electronic world providing the brains and the memory of products all around us from washing machines to super computers. Semi conductors consist of array of transistors with each transistor being a simple switch between electrical 0 and 1. Now often bundled together in there 10’s of millions they form highly complex, intelligent, reliable semiconductor chips, which are small and cheap enough for proliferation into products all around us.

Identification of new materials has been, and still is, the primary means in the development of next generation semiconductors. For the past 30 years, relentless scaling of CMOS IC technology to smaller dimensions has enabled the continual introduction of complex microelectronics system functions. However, this trend is not likely to continue indefinitely beyond the semiconductor technology roadmap. As silicon technology approaches its material limit, and as we reach the end of the roadmap, an understanding of emerging research devices will be of foremost importance in the identification of new materials to address the corresponding technological requirements.

If scaling is to continue to and below the 65nm node, alternatives to CMOS designs will be needed to provide a path to device scaling beyond the end of the roadmap. However, these emerging research technologies will be faced with an uphill technology challenge. For digital applications, these challenges include exponentially increasing the leakage current (gate, channel, and source/drain junctions), short channel effects, etc. while for analogue or RF applications, among the challenges are sustained linearity, low noise figure, power added efficiency and transistor matching. One of the fundamental approaches to manage this challenge is using new materials to build the next generation transistors.

PRESENT MEMORY TECHNOLOGY SCENARIO
As stated, revising the memory technology fields ruled by silicon technology is of great importance. Digital Memory is and has been a close comrade of each and every technical advancement in Information Technology. The current memory technologies have a lot of limitations. DRAM is volatile and difficult to integrate. RAM is high cost and volatile. Flash has slower writes and lesser number of write/erase cycles compared to others. These memory technologies when needed to expand will allow expansion only two-dimensional space. Hence area required will be increased. They will not allow stacking of one memory chip over the other. Also the storage capacities are not enough to fulfill the exponentially increasing need. Hence industry is searching for “Holy Grail” future memory technologies that are efficient to provide a good solution. Next generation memories are trying tradeoffs between size and cost. These make them good possibilities for development.

EMERGING MEMORY TECHNOLOGIES
Many new memory technologies were introduced when it is understood that semiconductor memory technology has to be replaced, or updated by its successor since scaling with semiconductor memory reached its material limit. These memory technologies are referred as ‘Next Generation Memories”. Next Generation Memories satisfy all of the good attributes of memory. The most important one among them is their ability to support expansion in three-dimensional spaces. Intel, the biggest maker of computer processors, is also the largest maker of flash-memory chips is trying to combine the processing features and space requirements feature and several next generation memories are being studied in this perspective. They include MRAM, FeRAM, Polymer Memory Ovonic Unified Memory, ETOX-4BPC, NRAM etc. One or two of them will become the mainstream.

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