This Electronics Engineering Seminar Topic deals with the following:
Sensor is a device that detects or senses the value or changes of value of the variable being measured. The term sensor some times is used instead of the term detector, primary element or transducer.
The fusion of information from sensors with different physical characteristics, such as light, sound, etc enhances the understanding of our surroundings and provide the basis for planning, decision making, and control of autonomous and intelligent machines.
A sensor is a device that responds to some external stimuli and then provides some useful output. With the concept of input and output, one can begin to understand how sensors play a critical role in both closed and open loops.
One problem is that sensors have not been specified. In otherwords they tend to respond variety of stimuli applied on it without being able to differentiate one from another. Neverthless, sensorsand sensor technology are necessary ingredients in any control type application. Without the feedback from the environment that sensors provide, the system has no data or reference points, and thus no way of understanding what is right or wrong g with its various elements.
Sensors are so important in automated manufacturing particularly in robotics. Automated manufacturing is essentially the procedure of remo0ving human element as possible from the manufacturing process. Sensors in the condition measurement category sense various types of inputs, condition, or properties to help monitor and predict the performance of a machine or system.
SENSOR AND SENSOR TECHNOLOGY IN THE PAST
The earliest example of sensors are not inanimate devices but living organisms. A more recent example of living organisms used in the early days of coal mining in the United States and Europe.
Robots must have the ability to sense and discriminate between objects. They must then be able to pick up these objects, position them properly and work with them without damaging or destroying them.
Intelligent system equipped with multiple sensors can interact with and operate in an unstructured environment without complete control of a human operator. Due to the fact that the system is operating in a totally unknown environment, a system may lack of sufficient knowledge concerning the state of the outside world. Storing large amounts of data may not be feasible. Considering the dynamically change world and unforeseen events, it is usually difficult to know the state of the world. Sensors can allow a system to learn the state of the world as needed and to cautiously update its own model of the world.